A collection of accuracy measures based on the accuracy of the prediction's direction (say, increasing or decreasing).

MDA(.resid, .actual, na.rm = TRUE, reward = 1, penalty = 0, ...)

MDV(.resid, .actual, na.rm = TRUE, ...)

MDPV(.resid, .actual, na.rm = TRUE, ...)



An object of class list of length 3.



A vector of residuals from either the training (model accuracy) or test (forecast accuracy) data.


A vector of responses matching the fitted values (for forecast accuracy, new_data must be provided).


Remove the missing values before calculating the accuracy measure

reward, penalty

The weights given to correct and incorrect predicted directions.


Additional arguments for each measure.


MDA(): Mean Directional Accuracy MDV(): Mean Directional Value MDPV(): Mean Directional Percentage Value


Blaskowitz and H. Herwartz (2011) "On economic evaluation of directional forecasts". International Journal of Forecasting, 27(4), 1058-1065.